Tag: Verification

Innovative Strategies Are Improving Early Design Circuit Verification

Layout vs. schematic (LVS) circuit verification is an essential stage in the integrated circuit (IC) design verification cycle. However, given today’s large design sizes, numerous hierarchies, and complex foundry decks, meeting planned tapeout deadlines in the quickest turnaround time (TAT) can be difficult. In an effort to minimize TAT, most design teams now use parallelized design flows, where various blocks are implemented in parallel with the full-chip design. These blocks, which consist of both internal and 3rd-party supplier intellectual property (IP), are frequently in different stages of completion during the verification cycle, as shown in figure 1.


Fig. 1: Parallel design flows often contain blocks in different stages of completion.

However, design teams typically can’t wait to run LVS verification until all the blocks are complete and implemented, for several reasons:

  • Merging completed blocks can result in numerous connectivity errors between the blocks
  • There is less time to debug errors
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New PIN Verification Bypass Flaw Affects Visa Contactless Payments

Even as Visa issued a warning about a new JavaScript web skimmer known as Baka, cybersecurity researchers have uncovered a new flaw in the company’s EMV enabled cards that enable cybercriminals to obtain funds and defraud cardholders as well as merchants illicitly.

The research, published by a group of academics from the ETH Zurich, is a PIN bypass attack that allows the adversaries to leverage a victim’s stolen or lost credit card for making high-value purchases without knowledge of the card’s PIN, and even trick a point of sale (PoS) terminal into accepting an unauthentic offline card transaction.

All modern contactless cards that make use of the Visa protocol, including Visa Credit, Visa Debit, Visa Electron, and V Pay cards, are affected by the security flaw, but the researchers posited it could apply to EMV protocols implemented by Discover and UnionPay as well. The loophole, however, doesn’t impact Mastercard, American

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